(eds.) Turmeric. A hot water extract of the dried rhizome was reputed to have an abortion-promoting effect when taken orally or in the form of a pessary (when inserted into the vagina). Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Susruta's Ayurvedic compendium, dating to 250 BC, recommends an ointment containing turmeric to relieve the effects of poisoned food. Turmeric can only be grown indoors in temperate regions and is a little tricky to at first, but once the dormancy of the rhizome has been broken it is easy to grow as a houseplant. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric have been used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines.Turmeric is a very important spice in India, which produces nearly the whole world's crop and consumes 80% of its produce. Not any single auspicious day is … Roasted turmeric has been used as an ingredient of a preparation used to treat dysentery. Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. These additives give turmeric an orange-red color instead of its native gold-yellow, and such conditions led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue import alerts from 2013 to 2019 on turmeric originating in India and Bangladesh. Blends Well With: All carrier oils and butters, ginger oil, patchouli oil Flora Vitiensis Nova. The rhizomes are cooked, dried and then ground to produce the strongly coloured, aromatic powder.Ground rhizomes are used to make turmeric oil that is used in the industrial production of flavouring for curries. Gilbert Is., (eds.) Tibet, Another feature it shares with ginger is a showy flower (although the showy part is actually a bract, not the true flower), which means an additional use for the plant is as an ornamental. Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Species that have been used as a substitute include C. xanthorrhiza , C. aromatica and C. zedoaria .In Asian producing countries, these three species are used as a source of starch and dyes and in folk medicine as a substitute for true turmeric. The problem of curcumin and its bioavailability: could its gastrointestinal influence contribute to its overall health-enhancing effects? Even with the use of alum, turmeric dye tends to fade over time. BOTANICAL NAMES OF SPICES: Spice Picture: English Common Name: Botanical Name: Family Name: Part used as Spice: Cardamom (Small) Elettaria cardamomum Maton: Zingiberaceae: Fruit,Seed: Cardamom (Large) Amomum subulatum Roxb: Zingiberaceae: Fruit,Seed: Pepper: Piper nigrum L… Piperaceae: Fruit: Bird’s Eye (Chilli) Capsicum Frute sence L. Solanaceae: Fruit: Capsicum (Chilli) Minimum temperature 18°C. Image from Stuppy & Kesseler©Papadakis Publisher. Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. Extracts have been added to creams as a colouring agent, and traditionally women would rub turmeric into their cheeks to produce a golden glow. Dried rhizomes are polished to smooth their exterior and to improve the colour. (2008). Turmeric's common name in the north, haldi, derives from the Sanskrit haridra, and in the south it is called manjal, a word that is frequently used in ancient Tamil literature.Turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia, cited in Sanskrit medical treatises … (1959). For hay fever. In an alkali solution, it will turn red, but if acid is added to neutralise the alkali then the colour will change to yellow. Family Name: Zingiberaceae. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431. Sri Lanka, Turmeric is a common spice and a major ingredient in curry powder. Haiti, Turmeric roots may be given as a present on special occasions, such as a visit to a pregnant woman. Jawa, Strips of paper soaked in turmeric can therefore be used as an indicator. Here, it is not uncommon to find turmeric powder adulterated with lead chromate, yellow earth, sand or even cheap talc.In the international market, concern over possible adulteration is associated mainly with the mixing of related Curcuma species containing similar pigments. Refractive Index: 1.502 to 1.513. Gulf of Guinea Is., Samoa, In Hindu wedding ceremonies, brides would rub turmeric over their bodies. The rhizome (underground stem) is thick and ringed with the bases of old leaves. & Hawthorne, W.D. Ahmed, Z.U. Turmeric is an important yellow food dye and is added to many Indian dishes including curries. Turmeric is a tropical plant. Turmeric is not widely used in Western medicine, but has been investigated as a treatment for some conditions. Latin Names: Curcuma longa, synonym Curcuma domestica; Curcuma aromatica. Pandey, R.P. It enters the international market in the form of dried whole rhizomes or as ground rhizomes. Sindhi Name: Halda. 2015. Leaves: Large, oblong, up to 1 m long, dark green on upper surface, pale green beneath. Turmeric rhizomes yield a bright yellow dye that is used as a colouring for foods, textiles, paints and even people! Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew, Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia Belize, The rhizomes can be cured for use as a spice by boiling and steaming. Common Names: turmeric, turmeric root, Indian saffron. Turmeric rhizomes are used as a bright yellow-orange culinary spice. Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. Turmeric, (Curcuma longa), perennial herbaceous plant of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), the tuberous rhizomes, or underground stems, of which have been used from antiquity as a condiment, a textile dye, and medically as an aromatic stimulant.Native to southern India and Indonesia, turmeric is widely cultivated on the mainland and in the islands of the Indian Ocean. Botanical and Common Names Family Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa syn. The cooked rhizomes are then dried, either artificially or in the sun, for 6 to 8 days. Yuncker, T.G. A compound in turmeric is thought to help lower swelling. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com on December 27, 2019. Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Flowers are sterile and do not produce viable seed. Turmeric is also used to make a yellow paint for various folk painting traditions in Madhya Pradesh. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville. Turmeric is also known as Curcuma, Curcumin, Halada, Haldi, Haridra, Indian Saffron, Nisha, Pian Jiang Huang, Rajani, Safran Bourbon, Safran de Batallita, Safran des Indes, Turmeric Root, and Yu Jin. Turmeric is used in the laboratory alongside litmus paper, which turns blue in the presence of bases and red in the presence of acids. Key producers of turmeric include India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. (2003). kornicková, J.L., Sída, O. The common name is widely used everywhere. The tray should be placed in a clear plastic bag, and the bag sealed and kept warm, preferably with bottom heat, at 20°C, for at least three weeks. Newborn babies had turmeric rubbed on their forehead for good luck, and they would be given a turmeric necklace to wear to keep away evil spirits.In India pieces of the rhizomes are added to water to make an infusion used in baths. Towards stability of names in Indian Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) Taxon 59: 269-282. Réunion, In India, the deliberate contamination and bulking out of turmeric is a serious problem in local markets. Still it is beneficial to know the common name of all garden plants. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence. A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. Pitcairn Is., CDC health information NIH research information, Common Names: turmeric, turmeric root, Indian saffron, Latin Names: Curcuma longa, synonym Curcuma domestica; Curcuma aromatica. The major importers are Iran, Sri Lanka and Middle Eastern and North African countries.Turmeric is cultivated commercially as an annual crop, by planting small rhizomes or pieces of rhizome on flat soil or in furrows between ridges. Nelson Sutherland, C.H. Turmeric is sterile (does not produce seed, but it does grow vigorously from the rhizomes). Description Turmeric comes from the root of the Curcuma longa plant which is a perennial plant that is part of the ginger family. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider(s). Turmeric. This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain. 2004-09-16. The colour of turmeric can vary depending on whether the liquid it is mixed with is alkali or acid. An unusual use for turmeric is in the chemistry laboratory. On an international scale, the problem may not be so serious, but closely related species are frequently substituted for true turmeric. Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221. (ed.) Christopherson, E. (1935). Other acids that were used include sour milk, dried mango in water or tamarind water.Turmeric is also mixed with other dyes to make different colours. Turmeric has also been used in tooth powder or paste. 17.3.7 Curcuma longa [Distribution: Southeast Asia (Native); Family: Zingiberaceae, Common Names: Turmeric] Curcuma longa a perennial plant is a common culinary ingredient in many parts of Asia and is also known for its therapeutic applications such as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory blood purifying, and wound-healing agent. Website: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. It has always been considered an auspicious material in the subcontinent, both amongst the Aryan cultures (mostly northern) and the Dravidian cultures (mostly southern), and its value may extend far in history to the beliefs of ancient indigenous peoples. Thailand, Contact may cause an allergic skin reaction in some people. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Originally associated with the sun as part of solar symbolism, the colours were absorbed into the mythology of Hinduism.Chakras in Hindu belief are mystical centres of orientation. (eds.). It was introduced to Jamaica in the 18th century. Turmeric and curcumin are being investigated for any beneficial effects they might have on conditions such as cancer, dementia and irritable bowel syndrome and for potential cholesterol-lowering effects. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento. Studies show that the rhizomes contain compounds that may have therapeutic effects, which appear to support some of its uses in traditional medicine. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., eds. Turmeric flowers are taken as a tea to lower fevers. La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. & Eldredge, L.G. Editorial: curcumin: recent insights, novel developments, new challenges. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible Line drawing of plant parts: Plant parts of turmeric (C. longa). Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR), About Research Training and Career Development, Training Grant Application, Review, and Award Process, Integrative Medicine Research Lecture Series, Division of Extramural Research Sponsored by NCCIH, Division of Intramural Research Conducted at NCCIH, Know the Science: How Medications and Supplements Can Interact, Know the Science: 9 Questions To Help You Make Sense of Health Research, How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed, Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. (2016). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, © Copyright Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Turmeric's common name in the north, haldi , derives from the Sanskrit haridra , and in the south it is called manjal , a word that is frequently used in ancient Tamil literature.Turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia, cited in Sanskrit medical treatises and widely used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems. Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, Kew Backbone Distributions The remainder are processed into turmeric.To develop the yellow colour and characteristic aroma, cleaned rhizomes are cooked in boiling water for an hour under slightly alkaline conditions. Hawaii, Raju, V.S., Reddy, C.S. Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) in Andhra Pradesh: a preliminary study Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 773-775. Turmeric is associated with fertility and prosperity and considered to bring good luck if applied to a bride's face and body, as part of the ritual purification before a wedding. Now synthetic dyes tend to be used instead, but these can be harmful to the skin. Flowers: Yellow-white, borne on a spike-like stalk 10-15 cm long. Common name of Turmeric is the name which changes with change in the regions. Smith, A.C. (1979). C. domestica (Turmeric, Haldi [Hindi], Jiang Huang [Chinese]) Curcuma zedoaria (Zedoary) Curcuma amada (Mango-Ginger) Curcuma xanthorrhizia (Curcuma, Japanese Turmeric, Tewon Lawa, Temu Lawak) Cautions Turmeric should not be used if there is a bile duct obstruction. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system. Funk JL. Many of its traditional uses are supported by scientific evidence. In Unani medicine, turmeric has been used for conditions such as liver obstruction and jaundice and has been applied externally for ulcers and inflammation. Cuba, The rhizome is the part that is most widely used. Guinea-Bissau, Malaya, Turmeric has been used for many conditions in traditional medicine in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Rhizomes are then washed. What Is Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health? Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). This can be seen in traditional dyeing techniques where acid might be added at various stages. Leafy tops are then cut off and the roots and adhering earth are removed. Orange signifies sacrifice, renunciation and courage. Turmeric is also made into a paste for skin conditions. Dosing. Improving natural product research translation. A prelimanary checklist of the Zingiberaceae of Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 24: 35-49. The growing plants require heavy application of manure to get the best yield.Turmeric is ready for harvesting 7 to 10 months after planting, when the lower leaves turn yellow. Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82. Each leafy shoot (pseudostem) bearing 8-12 leaves. Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. Duplication is encouraged. Turmeric belongs to the ginger family. Turmeric is also regarded as a 'rasayana' herb, which is a branch of Ayurvedic medicine and is used to counteract ageing processes. & Dilwakar, P.G. Turmeric and curcumin have a variety of interesting biological activities, but they’re challenging to study because curcumin is unstable (it easily changes into other substances) and has low bioavailability (not much of it reaches the bloodstream) when it’s taken orally. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102. This makes an alkali solution, so acidic lime juice was added to neutralise it. To prepare the yellow dye, the dried or fresh rhizomes are ground to a paste with water. (2008). China Southeast, Inhalation of turmeric smoke is reputed to relieve hiccups. Its primary use is in crafts as a fabric dye. Ivory Coast, Fortunately, chemical analysis can to some extent establish how pure a product is.Ground turmeric is the most vulnerable product, particularly in local markets. Turmeric goes dark red in the presence of alkaline (basic) substances, such as baking powder. sept. 2005: 1-158. The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. It is also added to pickles and can be used instead of saffron to add colour and flavour to rice. Common Names in India. Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. As turmeric and other spices are commonly sold by weight, the potential exists for powders of toxic, cheaper agents with a similar color to be added, such as lead(II,IV) oxide ("red lead"). Kashmiri Name: Lidar. To make green, cloth can be dyed yellow with turmeric and then blue with indigo ( Indigofera tinctoria ) or vice versa. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric, and the activities of turmeric are commonly attributed to curcuminoids (curcumin and closely related substances). Girmansyah, D. & al. 2: 1-164. Overview: An upright, perennial herb to about 1 m tall. Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. Turmeric powder is also sprinkled on sacred images. It has a little bitter, peppery like mustard and a slight ginger flavour in it. (2013). [Database subscription]. Dosage: Infusion: 1 teaspoon per cup of water; or 1:0.85 fresh strength liquid extract: 10-40 drops 1-4 times per day.. Turmeric is a main ingredient of curry powder. Turmeric was probably cultivated at first as a dye and then became valued as a condiment as well as for cosmetic purposes. India is the biggest producer, supplying some 20,000 t each year (94% of the world's demand). Lesser Sunda Is., Turmeric is important in Hindu and Buddhist ceremonies. They should be kept damp and warm, in a slightly shaded position and fed weekly during the growing season with general-purpose liquid fertiliser. Turmeric s botanical name is Curcuma longa. Art and Illustrations in Digifolia MIM, Deurne. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed. Society Is., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. (2012). Orange colours can be made in different ways using yellow turmeric paste, red pigment from safflowers ( Carthamus tinctorius ) and acidic mango rind in water. Turmeric rhizomes have also been mixed with other plants to produce traditional remedies for a range of conditions including tonsillitis, headaches, wounds, snake bites, stings, sprains and fractured bones. Featured: Lysimachia arvensis Turmeric is also cultivated extensively in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. It contains yellow pigments called curcuminoids. This explains why both look alike and are called similar Yoruba names. However, adulteration of true turmeric by C. aromatica and C. zedoaria can be detected by chemical methods. Vietnam, Trinidad-Tobago, Some of these are retained for replanting as a future crop. Only suitable for growing indoors or in a heated greenhouse in temperate regions. is there a supplement i can take it with to avoid the nausea. Various shades of yellow can be made, depending upon which other ingredients are used and how much turmeric is added. Because the actions of turmeric and its components in people are complex and not well understood, no clear conclusions have been reached about whether these substances have benefits for health conditions. Habitat: Turmeric has its origins most likely in India but today it is common throughout Southeast Asia, China, and southern Australia but can be found in most tropical regions of the world. The exact origin of Curcuma longa is not known, but it is thought to originate from South or Southeast Asia, most probably from Vietnam, China or western India. Congo, Pests Red spider mite can be an occasional problem in older plants: regular misting and keeping leaves well-washed will reduce this. They are sold in this form or ground into a powder. Hot water extracts of the dried rhizome have been taken orally in Ayurvedic medicine to reduce inflammation. Specific Gravity: 0.916 to 0.936. Govaerts, R. (1999). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. It is reported that washing in turmeric improves skin tone and reduces hair growth. This yogic concept is of the inner cosmology of a being discovered through meditative practice. Yellow and yellow-orange are colours that have sacred and auspicious connotations on the Indian subcontinent. Curcuma longa is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Marathi Name: halad. Oriya Name: Haldi. Traditionally when dyeing silk yarn, the yarn would first be dyed with turmeric to give a richer colour.
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