rhizophora apiculata uses

448-457. Bai X, Lai T, Zhou T, Li Y, Li X, Zhang H. Molecules. PubMed:Antiviral properties of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, against human immunodeficiency virus. The branched stilt roots weighted with stones serve as anchors. A few specimens have been collected with characters intermediate between R. apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa in western Malesia and western New Guinea. Growth rings and parenchyma are indistinct. generated in the process of charcoal making has the potential to be used as antifungal agent especia Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid which is a crude condensate produced from the distillation of smoke lly to treat candidal infections. Minimum diameter for charcoal production varies from 20.5 cm in Sabah to 4 cm in Vietnam. BMC Complement Altern Med. Forest Ecology and Management 17: 211-230. Current rotations vary from 15 years (in firewood plantations in Thailand) to 20-30 years, but may be even shorter. Bark grey, almost smooth or with vertical fissures. Tamai, S. & Iampa, P., 1988. Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress. There are no known breeding programmes. Their tangled prop root systems – illustrated in the header photo – are the “trademark” associated with all mangroves by most people (if they have heard … In large concessions of 2000-4000 ha for wood chipping in Sabah, a diameter limit of 10.2 cm is used, provided that 100 seed trees per ha are left. The root protrudes from the fruit, producing a green, spindle-shaped rod (hypocotyl) of up to 40 cm long. Rhizophora apiculata and Acrostichum aureum are a common mangrove species in Malaysia. The tallest trees are closest to … Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Natural regeneration is often good, provided sufficient seed trees are left after harvesting.  |  In Sri Lanka, Cerebera manghas is used in making masks for many traditional cultural activities. Hypocotyl cylindrical to club-shaped, up to 40 cm × 1.2 cm before falling, often slightly curved, more or less blunt, smooth and shining, green tinged with red. Rhizophora in Australasia - some clarification of taxonomy and distribution. It is unlikely that any substantial germplasm collections of R. apiculata are being maintained. The ash content is about 1 g per 100 g wood of the stem and prop roots, and 2 g in branch wood. Chin J Nat Med. R. apiculata, being among the most easily regenerated and widely planted species, will play an important role in those sustainably managed systems. Long-term, multiple-use management plans have to be developed and implemented to ensure sustainable use of the remaining resource. Recently, they have also been extensively harvested for woodchips or converted for agricultural and aquacultural purposes. In sites where attempts at planting had previously failed due to pest problems, planting nursery-raised seedlings and transplanting of wildings proved successful. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata.Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Additional planting and planting in denuded areas mostly succeeds well, provided the ecological conditions are suitable. The DNA protection efficiency of extracts against oxidative damage was confirmed by DNA nicking assay using bacterial DNA. Rhizophora apiculata, as well as Rhizophora mucronata, is used to make charcoal in the charcoal kilns of Kuala Sepetang in Perak, Malaysia. YieldsIn Malaysia, the 30-year rotation har- vested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac). Growth and water use of the mangroves. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. The system of final harvesting of trees for fuelwood varies between countries. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Rays are numerous, straight, forming conspicuous silvery grains, narrower than the pores, and visible to the naked eye. 447 pp. stands. Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. R. apiculata is the preferred species in replanting programmes in most mangrove regions in South-East Asia. They can be distinguished in the field by some easily observed characters: bark grey, almost smooth, with vertical fissures in R. apiculata; in R. mucronata the bark is nearly black or reddish, rough or sometimes scaly. As thinning is a commercial operation, its timing, as well as the selection of tree species and stem diameter are influenced by market demand. Pharm Biol. This study assessed the Naz R, Roberts TH, Bano A, Nosheen A, Yasmin H, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Ullah S, Khan W, Anwar Z. PLoS One. The poles are carried out of the swamp. In vitro antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities of Rhizophora mucronata. Rhizophora apiculata Taxonomy ID: 106626 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid106626) current name The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning leather and to toughen and dye fishing lines, ropes and nets. (Editor): Flora Malesiana Series I, Vol. In recent years it has been extensively harvested for production of wood chips in East Malaysia and Indonesia. Felled trees are bucked into billets of about 1 m long, and sometimes debarked before they are transported out of the swamp forest. Leaves decussate, rosette-like at the end of twigs; stipules lanceolate, 4-8 cm long, conspicuous, caducous; petiole 1.5-3 cm long, reddish; blade entire, elliptical-oblong to sublanceolate, 7-18 cm × 3-8 cm, leathery, green and shiny, apex acute to apiculate, base cuneate, veins distinct above, obscure beneath, glabrous with minute, scattered black corky warts on the lower surface, visible on older or dried leaves. Check other web resources for Rhizophora apiculata Blume : PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories ; Rhizophora apiculata Bl. NIH Rhizophora apiculata. The alignment of differential nucleotide positions of the SBE 2 gene from Rhizophora species of Kiribati and the Malay Peninsula are shown in Table 1. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. The wood of R. apiculata is hard, strong and heavy with an air-dry density of 960-1170 kg/m3. produces a tannin that can be used for tanning leather. Indonesia: bakau minyak (general), bako (Javanese), babakoan laut (Sundanese), Malaysia: bakau minyak, bakau tandok, bakau akik, Papua New Guinea: abia (Gulf Province), bahkweh (Northern Province), pana (Central Province), Philippines: bakauan (lalaki), uakatan (Tagalog), bakhau (Samar). Propagules of Rhizophora spp. Branchlets swollen at the nodes, solid and pithy. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. R. apiculata is slightly more common than R. mucronata to which it is closely related. Rhizophora apiculata is called ‘bakhaw lalaki,’ in the Philippines, "Thakafathi ތަކަފަތި" in the Maldives, 'Đước' in Vietnam, Garjan in India, as well as other vernacular names. are sometimes attacked by a scolytid beetle (Poecilips fallax). Seedlings tend to be taller in shade and produce fewer roots. Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Molecules.  |  Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Thailand and Indonesia adopt strip-felling, the Philippines and East Malaysia practise minimum diameter harvesting, while clear-felling has been traditionally carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. Inflorescence in R. mucronata longer, forked 2 or 3 times, with more numerous flowers; hypocotyl longer (35-65(-90) cm). Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots; aerial roots sometimes develop from the lower branches; taproot usually abortive; branching primarily sympodial. In Malaysia, stick thinning is practised. in Papua New Guinea. pp. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. and. Seedlings may retain their viability for several months. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Tannin obtained from the barks of Blume was further separated into condensed and hydrolysable tannins. If cut at least 20 cm above the stilt roots, regeneration is without problems. 2016;54(1):118-29. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1017886. have been reported to be the major pests of newly planted propagules. Description. Wildings are readily available, as natural regeneration is often profuse. Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. Wood anatomy of Rhizophoraceae. The nanoparticles were tested for toxicity against MG-63 cells. Mangrove-based Rhizophora apiculata was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin Rhizophoraceae. R. apiculata is commonly found in most mangrove swamps in tropical Asia, from the delta of the Indus in Pakistan to Vietnam and Hainan. In practice, thinning is irregular, incomplete and selective, and poorly accessible stands are often neglected. Agroforestry Uses: A part of the mangrove swamps, the tree helps to protect inland areas from the effects of the ocean, including stabilizing the shore line and giving protection from strong winds and storms. 2012 Sep 6;17(9):10675-82. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910675. Thinning is important for good stand development. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line. Allelochemical interaction of the mangrove species was speculated to play an important role in dominance in the harsh mangrove environment. 2017 Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to … The woods of Rhizophora species are primarily utilized for firewood and for making charcoal. The bark, according to some analyses, contains large quantities of pentosans and furfurol. One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress.In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Damaged young trees are capable of recovering by sprouting from dormant buds and bending upwards to form another erect stem. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) 2020 Jul 29;15(7):e0236319. & Chan, H.T., 1986. Estimates of annual litterfall vary from 6-11.5 t/ha. Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods Gurudeeban Selvaraj1,2*, Satyavani Kaliamurthi1,2, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam1 Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Insects have occasionally been observed foraging for pollen. Tropical Ecology 28: 274-288. Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. Presence of phenols and flavonoids of R. apiculata was analysed using gallic acid…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method ( a ) and…, FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. Leiden Botanical Series 3: 20-75. R. apiculata is the most common mangrove species. Uprooting the ferns manually with iron bars or spraying with a herbicide can solve the problem, unless the inundation regime has changed. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. The planting procedure is simple, involving inserting the propagules vertically into the muddy soil along predetermined lines and spacings. In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Keywords: USA.gov. Mangrove vegetation. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Putz, F.E. Leaf samples in the Matang Mangrove Forest which consists of almost pure stands of R. apiculata contain per 100 g dry matter: N 0.4-1 g, P 0.1 g, K 0.9-1.2 g, Ca 1.1-2.0 g, Mg 0.4-0.8 g, Na 1.6-1.9 g. The quantity of tannin in the bark is very variable, 8-40% in air-dried bark. Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. Role of Acrostichum species in natural regeneration of Rhizophora species in Malaysia. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Rhizophora apiculata is mostly preferred for replanting programmes at mangrove sites in Southeast Asia due to its multitude of uses. or R. mucronata. Poles are used for piling and construction purposes, and as fishing stakes. For biomass calculation, tree height and diameter were measured in plot of 10m x 10m in compartment 18, 31, 71, 74 and 67. The genus Rhizophora contains more species of mangrove than any other. Media in category "Rhizophora apiculata"The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. Rhizophora forests are being heavily exploited for fuelwood and poles. 2013 Mar;11(2):149-57. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60042-4. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. After extraction of the tannins, the ash mainly consists of calcium carbonate (70%) and lime (18%) and can be used as fertilizer. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata . Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2. The bark provides a medicine against dysentery. In nurseries shade is neither advantageous nor harmful. Average annual increase in diameter over a 30-year period in Matang, Malaysia, was 0.32 cm. A stand of R. apiculata in southern Thailand had an annual leaf production of 7 t/ha and 20 t/ha of wood. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. The stem of R. apiculata is upright and cylindrical in closed forest, but plants develop a straggling or semi-prostrate habit in unfavourable sites. Main productsTimber, fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicine. Pores are small, circular, fairly numerous, straight, solitary and in short radial groups, mostly in pairs, and frequently with dark gummy deposits. The best way to regenerate a mangrove stand at the least cost is to encourage reproduction in the period before the final harvest by thinning and by minimizing damage to young plants during harvesting. Flowers are self-compatible and usually wind-pollinated. Planting programmes often coincide with the fruiting season. The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. Hou, D., 1958. The main agroforestry uses from this species are soil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna and also as timber products which are fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicines [7];[8]. Further, antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts were assessed against human clinical pathogenic bacteria, and the results showed that butanol and methanol extract has potential antimicrobial activity. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Judging by the greatest volume production of firewood, a 40-year rotation is preferable. The bark of Rhizophora spp. Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Rhizophora apiculata. A With the opening of the canopy, the ferns may form up to 4 m tall, dense, continuous thickets, making it impossible for propagules of Rhizophora to enter the area. HHS Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. In Peninsular Malaysia it takes 35 years for R. apiculata to reach a stem diameter of 19 cm at breast height. & Muktar, A., 1987. FTIR analysis of solvent extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds at 3409-3430 cm-1 that actively involved in various applications including antioxidant and anticancer activities. Felling of R. apiculata for poles is essentially a thinning operation in which straight pole-sized individuals are cut. Antioxidant potential, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Rhododendron anthopogonoides and its protective effect on hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells. Litterfall varies with stand vigour and age. Tropical Ecology 21: 113-124. The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. The botany of mangroves. Large areas of formerly productive Rhizophora stands have been made unproductive in this way. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236319. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. 2018 Jun 8;23(6):1395. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061395. Ecological Research 3: 227-238. Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Equisetopsida C. Agardh > Malpighiales Juss.  |  This study used productivity models and above ground biomass to investigate productivity in different sites of MMFR. Mangrove and mangrove associates are abundant plants that grow throughout Indonesian shorelines that have high pharmaceutical and food … Eventually, the seedling falls from the fruit, floats with the high tide and establishes if it reaches a suitable site. Read "Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2, Plant Cell & Environment" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Rhizophora spp. The ferns Acrostichum aureum L. and A. speciosum Willd. Flowers bisexual, sessile, yellow; calyx deeply 4-lobed, coriaceous, accrescent and reflexed in fruit, lobes ovate, 10-14 mm × 6-8 mm, concave, acute, brown-yellow to reddish, persistent; receptacle with a disk; petals 4, free, lanceolate, 8-11 mm × 1.5-2 mm, membranous, glabrous, early caducous; stamens mostly 12, sessile, anthers 6-7.5 mm long, acute, multi-loculate, opening with a large ventral valve; ovary semi-inferior, 2-celled, superior part enclosed by the disk, bluntly conical, 1.5-3.5 mm long; style 0.5-1 mm long, 2-lobed. R. stylosa has broadly elliptical leaf blades, up to 12 cm × 7 cm, flowers with styles 4-6 mm long and the hypocotyl up to 30 cm long. According to [6], Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. Cookies help us deliver our services. 413 pp. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. 59:156-169. More intensive site preparation is required where flooding is limited due to large numbers of crab mounds and where there is severe infestation of Acrostychum ferns. Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Derris trifoliata Loureiro can also be a serious strangling weed. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. Srivastava, P.B.L., Majid, N.M. & Shariff, A.H., 1980. is one of the most important species in mangrove forest and often used for forest rehabilitation, particularly at Muara Teluk Naga Village, Tangerang District. The sapwood is light yellow, 3-5 cm thick, and very distinct from the heartwood which is reddish-brown and darkens with age. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. Foliage and soil nutrients in Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Main agroforestry usesSoil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna. Anticancer activity; Antioxidant activity; DNA nicking assay; Flavonoids; Rhizophora apiculata. ex Bercht. Mature propagules that remain viable for 4-5 months are gathered from the forest floor. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from R. × lamarckii and R. × annamalai plus other IWP species by swollen (wider than long), corky br own bracts, one inflorescence Burma (Myanmar): pyoo. 5. Srivastava, P.B.L., Keong, G.B. van Vliet, G.J.C.M., 1976. In South-East Asia 3 Rhizophora species occur: R. apiculata, R. mucronata Poiret and R. stylosa Griffith. PubMed:Distribution and accumulation of ultraviolet-radiation-absorbing compounds in leaves of tropical mangroves. Inflorescence axillary (in leaf scar below the leaf rosette), 2-flowered; peduncle thick, 0.5-1.5 cm long; bracteoles at the base of flower, cup-shaped, fleshy, crenulate. Chapman, V.J., 1976. J. Arnold Arbor. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. 2015 Aug 18;15:287. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0820-3. Photo courtesy of Barry Clough. Three thinnings are prescribed in Matang, Malaysia (at 15, 20, and 25 years of age), one thinning in Indonesia. Vivipary is characteristic for Rhizophora species. eCollection 2020. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. The tannin of Rhizophora is associated with a substance which darkens gradually; it is used as a deep brown or black dye. It occurs throughout the Malesian region and reaches southwards to the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland, and eastwards as far as New Caledonia and Ponape (Micronesia). PubMed:Growth of a mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) seedlings as influenced by GA3, light and salinity. Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand. It grows gregariously in swamps flooded by normal high tide, on deep soft mud of estuaries, often consolidated and sheltered from surf and currents by pioneer species of Avicennia L. and Sonneratia L. R. apiculata avoids hard soils and develops well in per-humid regions where it can form almost pure stands, sometimes in association with Bruguiera spp. See this image and copyright information in PMC. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method (. Rhizophora mucronata is used for the treatment of inflammation diarrhea, and angina disorders by people of India and Burma. In Vietnam, annual wood production is about 60 000 t. The energy value of the stems, branches and prop roots is 15 000-19 000 kJ/kg, of charcoal 32 200 kJ/kg. The timber is suitable for making furniture. Rhizophora apiculata Blume Lim Sheh Hong, Darah Ibrahim, Jain Kassim and Suraya Sulaiman A research was conducted to study the anticandidal compound of tannin extracted from the barks of a mangrove tree, Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Rhizophora apiculata has been exported from the Philippines to various parts of the world for utilization in the textile industry and extracts of stilt roots exhibited mosquito larvicidal activity. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. Total aboveground dry matter has been estimated to be 160-190 t/ha in 15-year-old stands in Thailand and 257 t/ha in a 28-year-old stand in Peninsular Malaysia. Production and international trade In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Singapore: bakau minyak, red-tree. Noordhoff-Kolff, Jakarta, Indonesia. Epub 2015 Apr 9. In the absence of hurricanes and chain saws, individual trees may reach 40m or more. It does not occur in fresh water swamps. a DPPH activity,…, Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of S. aureus using DNA nicking assay.…, Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract a on lung cancer cells (A549) and normal…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining…, NLM Further, antimicrobial … Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata. Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining (.

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